I will try my best to provide detailed info on various cars and what is like to live with them, I have already produced a few for Jaguar-car-forums, I will do my best to be unbiased, but it will be hard for some cars. I will re-produce press releases and copy from other motoring news.

Saturday, 5 December 2015

Ssangyong 3 - Turismo 2.2 Litre ELX 4x4 Auto - The Titanic of MPV's, but there's no sinking feeling here.

One of the best kept secrets of the Ssangyong range is the Turismo, the basis of this car harks back to 2004 and the launch of the Rodius, a very unsightly car, and that's being kind, it was far from the prettiest car on the roads, and you will rarely see one these days, but it progressed and was updated and upgraded and in 2013 the car gained its biggest and best face lift.

To say that this car is enormous is an understatement, it seats seven very comfortably in the leather seats, and you still have room for luggage, shopping of a small dog, the outside of the car has been given various "slashes", lines and creases to break up the mass of metal, and to a degree this has succeeded, but the detailing around the rear wheel arch still needs something.

On the inside, however, this where there are some issues, overall it's very good, plenty of space, oodles of headroom, storage and legroom is also great, but because the car is so big, the dash board is also on the large side, and that means masses of hard scratchy plastics, which is a shame, if they managed to have, even the top section, in soft rubbery plastics, in a contrasting colour, that would make a mass of difference.

But one thing that can not be forgiven is the very old style warning section in front of the driver, the main dials are situated in the centre of the dash, rather than directly in front of the driver, instead, you get a window that has light after light after light, of warning indicators and gear box numbers, they are square and visible, unlike 99% of all new cars that have a black display, with unseen indicators that only appear when necessary, it reminds me of a 1980's Austin Maestro or cars of that era, that had all these on show.

Personally i am no fan of central dials, they make you take your eyes off the road for longer periods of time than if they were in front of you, or so it seems, but they are easy to read, and big enough for everyone to see, even if you are half a mile away on the back row of seating.

The seats, all of them, are very firm and keep you well planted, which is a godsend, as the uber soft suspension/damping does make this car wallow and roll, especially if you break too heavily or go around tight corners too quickly, this is the first time in many decades that i actually felt my stomach churn when we found ourselves at a corner which was sharper than expected, so the break was pushed as we rounded the corner, and the movement of the car really made me feel a tad unwell for about five minutes.

That said, this car, belies it's size and handles quite well, the 4x4 system give the car added grip and will keep out out of trouble should you do a little wayward, the design of the auto gearbox inside the car mimics the Tivoli and Korando, giving a family feel to the car, but that's all there is in common with the two SUV's. 

The auto box is a Mercedes-Benz 7 speed e-Tronic automatic transmission, so you can be assured that the gear changes are as seamless as possible, and the change up and down is handled with ease, swiftness and silence, however, i am not sure if it is the car, or the Turismo range as a whole, but we found that when you utilise manual gear changes, and go up a couple, from a low gear, the revs take some while to drop, and it is significantly noticeable, it is not quick like every other auto we have driven.

The new 2.2 Litre engine in this car pulls with ease, and considering the size and weight, does it without complaint, you can also take it as read that the fuel consumption will be hindered by its size and bulk, the manufactures claimed figures for the Turismo are 36.2/28.8/42.8 (combinedUrbanExtra urban). Not the best in the world, but far from the worst, maybe this can be looked at over time and engineering changes.

Unfortunately for us, the test car we had was the top of the range, and so the Co2 level is a mind blowing 205g/km, and this needs to be looked at, even the Range Rover with the 3.0 Litre V6 gets away with 182g/km and that's a bigger engine.

With an 80 litre fuel tank you should be able to achieve, based on manufacturer claims, 637.12 miles per tank full, however, once you get a family, and all its luggage in, that will drop to an urban figure of 506.88 miles, so quite a drop, but then that's to be expected in a car this size and for what it is designed for.

Equipment levels in the Turismo are also quite good, but as our car was top of the range, it is only to be expected, however, one thing that we feel that the car should have is an auto tailgate, it is so bit and heavy that the addition of it being auto controlled would be a big bonus to the car, but saying that you do get :-

  • Leather steering wheel & gear knob
  • Front seat warmers
  • Leather seats
  • Electric height adjustable driver's seat
  • Remote key less entry
  • Electric windows (front & rear)
  • Seat back tables for second row seats
  • Solar controlled glass
  • Privacy glass: rear door, quarter & tailgate
  • Electronic cruise control
  • Electrically operated & heated door mirrors
  • Heated lower front windscreen
  • Rain sensitive wipers
  • Rear parking sensors
  • Automatic air conditioning to front & rear
  • Air quality control system
  • CD & RDS radio with iPod & Bluetooth connectivity
  • Tyre pressure monitoring system
  • Full size spare wheel
The Turismo is a perfect car for the family, it can take all you can throw at it, and with a luggage space of 875 Litre in it's smallest form you get lots of space for shopping and luggage, but put down the seats and you get a cavernous 3146 litre, yes, nearly four times more, and that's not to be sniffed at, at all.


Looks - 6/10
Fuel Consumption - 6/10
Equipment - 8/10
Comfort and equipment 8/10
On-Road capability - 7/10
Co2 levels - 4/10
Interior Space - 10/10

Total - 7/10 


The Turismo is an odd car, the looks are subjective, but far better than they used to be, the interior has everything you could want, but the dash area is left lacking, it is the hard scratchy plastics that we found unlikeable, and the central dials was another negative, like the warning area in front of the driver.

If you can get past those couple of items, the car is OK, not the best, and not the worst, it does everything acceptably, the 4x4 system works well, the engine is sufficiently powerful enough to move you along happily, the massive plus point is the Mercedes derived gearbox, that is just so smooth and easy, it makes driving the car that bit better.

The range starts at a very VERY reasonable £19k and takes you up to an also very reasonably £25k, considering what you get for that £25k and you get a very well produced, car that comes with a 5 year limitless warranty, extra warranty on some consumables, like battery, break pads and clutch plates.

The only extras you might want to consider is another reasonable £500 for metallic paint, considering how much paint there must be on that car, its cheaper than some other brands met paint on supermini's, you can upgrade the audio/sat nav for a grand, but the standard one does it all anyway, so save that money and use it towards your fuel bill and road tax, because they are it's only negative points, the low MPG and high Co2.

But saying that this is a great car that will suit big families down to the ground.

USA SALES NOVEMBER - INFINITI - 15 months and counting as the brand continues to beat records.

  • Sales in 2015’s first 11 months exceeded entire 2014 global sales
  • 192,000 sales from January to November, up 15 percent
  • 15th consecutive best individual month in a row
Infiniti recorded another exceptional sales performance in November when the company sold more than 19,100 vehicles globally, an increase of more than 1,300 vehicles, or 8 percent, over November 2014. This marks the 15th consecutive month of best individual months on record. 

With that result, Infiniti already surpassed its full-year 2014 sales volume – a record at its time – after just 11 months in 2015. Consequently, 2015 will see another all-time high result for the brand.
Strong sales performances in key regions and markets generated the sound global sales result. The 2015 November sales marked the best November in history for Infiniti globally and for many regions and markets including China, Western Europe, Canada, Mexico, Korea and Taiwan. The 2015 November sales was also an all-time record month for the Asia and Oceania region and Australia.
Year to date, Infiniti sold more than 192,000 vehicles ­– up 15 percent from the same period in 2014 and a new record for the company. In October, Infiniti already surpassed its full 2014 calendar year sales results in mainland China and Taiwan. Now in November, the same was achieved in key regions including the Americas, Western Europe and Asia & Oceania, as well as individual markets such as the United States, Canada, Mexico, Middle East, South Africa and Australia.
“Our strong sales momentum continues, as we have already broken last year’s sales record with a month still to come in 2015,” said Roland Krueger, president of Infiniti Motor Company. “December will be a milestone month for the company as we start production of the new Q30 Active Compact in the Sunderland plant in the UK. We expect the Q30 to drive further sales increases in the coming year.”
Year-to-date, Infiniti Americas (U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Latin America) sold more than 131,000 vehicles, a 12 percent increase year over year – an all-time record. In November, Infiniti Americas sold more than 12,900 vehicles, an increase of 3 percent from a year ago. See related story: Infiniti reports U.S. sales for November 2015.
In China, Infiniti continues to outperform a sluggish overall automotive market. In November, the brand sold 3,800 vehicles, up 25 percent from last year. In the first 11 months of the year, Infiniti recorded sales of 36,000 vehicles, an increase of 35 percent. Infiniti continues to be one of the fastest growing premium brands in China.
In Western Europe, Infiniti sold 6,300 vehicles year-to-date, an increase of 49 percent from the same period in 2014. In November, 500 vehicles were sold, an increase of 17 percent compared to the same period of 2014.
In Asia and Oceania (Australia, Korea, Taiwan and other markets), Infiniti sold about 700 vehicles in November 2015, an increase of 83 percent compared to the same period of 2014. Year to date, sales reached almost 5,000 vehicles, an increase of 16 percent.

Ssangyong 2 - Korando 2.2 ELX 4x4 Auto - The Tivoli’s bigger brother, a car that offers more, and delivers.

In the second of our road test reports from Ssangyong, we take the mid sized off-roader for a session on the off-road track at the Millbrook proving ground, The Korando, was, before the Tivoli launch the brands best seller and the best car to have, but now that the Tivoli is heading towards it's first birthday, and the recent addition of 4x4, the Korando, is now showing it's age a little.

The Korando, has some interior traits shared with it's smaller sibling, to keep the family look, which is no bad thing, but it does need to have some updates inside, maybe utilising some of the Tivoli switchgear and central binnacle look, will make the difference.

After the Tivoli was taken around the Millbrook off-road track, we had a short wait while others were taking the Korando  round, but once inside, it was swiftly noticeable that the 2.2 Litre was under the hood, and not the 1.6 Litre, the pulling power was far superior, as to be expected, there was that added grunt, when pushed.

The increase in ground clearance was also noticeable, as we never grounded this car, even when we tried too, it made minced meat of the 25% gradient hill we went up, and the driving on the side, the car just did it, no complaints, no sliding, it just knew it had a job of work to do, and it did it.

The 4x4 system will be suited to dealing with anything you throw at it, whereas, the Tivoli will be better on road, and can deal with snow and ice, and muddy tracks for the main part, the Korando, will do anything, whether it be on a farm, someone taking it to a quarry at the weened to play, doing a proper off-Road course, or just driving the kids to school, this car will do it all with out batting an eyelid, 

Like the Smaller car, you can engage the diff lock, move the auto level to "M" and use the switch at the side to do manual gear changes, ideal for bad ground, inclines and the like.

Both cars have a small degree of descent control, mainly via engine braking, and having your foot gently tap the brake when necessary, there is no real DCS on this car, like on Land Rovers, whose Descent Control System is second to none.

Again, here, like all cars in the brand, they supply you with a limitless five year warranty, They also cover brake pads and clutch friction plates for a year/12,500 miles, over and above many other brands, something these days, people care more about, making sure that your car is fully covered in the rare even of some sort of failure, or issue.

But it does not stop there, they also cover your audio equipment (fitted) for five years, also limitless mileage, and the battery is covered for three years not two, like many other brands, so all the positives are stacking up in favour of the brand, so we have at present two products from the company, that seem to be very good cars, and so they should be, no one makes a bad car these days, not like in the 1970's when most were bad, and if you found a good one, you worried why is was good.

The engine in our test Tivoli is the potent 178ps diesel engine, the engine produces the 178ps @ 4,000rpm max power with an impressive 400Nm @1,400-2,800rpm for a powerful and sporty driving experience, this engine is mated to the AISIN 6-Speed Auto transmission, this is already a well proven auto box, as it also appears in the Tivoli,  and like the but this is tuned to deliver a better fuel efficiency.

And the gear change is smooth, just like the Tivoli, it is up there with the best, but it could be just that little bit more! drive the car at a reasonable pace and you will hardly notice any change up or down, however, if you put your foot down and you can tell it is an auto.

The new in house 2.2 litre engine is quite potent and will give some of the other cars on the road a pasting, and over taking at motorway speed is easy, albeit a little noisy, once you get higher up the rev range, the 0-60 in the Korando is 9.9 seconds, not the best in the world, but better than a lot of competition, unfortunately it suffers from a Co2 level of 177g/km, yes it is a 4x4 SUV, but the new Discovery Sport has a Co2 of 139g/km and mpg of 53.3 combined.

Like the Tivoli we managed to achieve a reasonably low MPG whilst on the track, but when you see the manufacturer claimed figures of 48.7/39.2/56.5 (combinedUrbanExtra urban) for the manual, however the auto is significantly different, which was surprising, as most modern auto's are not that far from the manual, but the automatics are 41.5/32.8/49.6 (combinedUrbanExtra urban)so combined with a 57 litre fuel tank are 610.70 Miles (M) or 520.41 (A), not bad as long as you have not got a heavy foot.

The interior of the Korando is looking dated compared to the smaller model, but with a similar look to the Sat Nav, radio buttons etc, it keeps from looking completely dated, that said, everything is easy to understand, easy to find, and easy to operate, you cant say that for a lot of cars these days, when you need a degree in Computer Science to work out what button does what.

The seating in this car are very comfortable, and they support in all the right places and keep you in position when driving on inclines of going around corners at speed, there is plenty of leg room front and rear, whether your six foot tall and sit behind another six footer in the driving seat, you still have enough room to be comfortable, no low roof line is great too, meaning no headaches when you do take the car off-road with guests, it is a rarity these days, as a lot of brands are sloping the roof line down significantly at the back, so to have a proper car with a proper roof, is good.

Equipment levels on our car are good too, but as it is top of the range it is not surprising, but you get
  • Rear parking sensors.
  • Tyre Pressure monitoring system (TPMS).
  • Full sized spare wheel (cost option)
  • Space Saver Spare wheel.
  • 18" Diamond cut alloy wheels.
  • Front fog lights.
  • Projection headlamps.
  • Hill start assist.
  • Puddle lamps.
  • Heater lower front windscreen.
  • Trip computer. 
  • Rear View Camera.
  • TomTom Navigation.
  • Rear heater duct.
  • Automatic air con.
  • Electric Moving, heating and folding door mirrors.
  • Auto dipping rear view mirror.
  • Electronic cruise control.
  • Electric Windows, Front and rear.
  • Leather Upholstery.
  • Electric Power Steering.
  • Smart Instrument Cluster.
  • Remote Keyless Entry.
  • Privacy Glass, Rear door, quarter and tailgate.
  • Electric Moving Front Seats.
  • Heated seats, Front and Rear.
  • Steering wheel mounted controls.

Boot Space is reasonable, but it is not bad at 486 Litres, it will take a lot of the everyday items that you carry, put the seats down and you will get 1312 litres of space meaning you should be able to get most of your goods in the car with ease, however, the high bumper can be a hindrance, but it is flat from there, no drop down once inside, 


Looks - 7/10
Fuel Consumption - 7/10
Equipment - 9/10
Off-Road Capability - 9.5/10
On-Road capability - 8/10
Co2 levels - 7/10
Interior Space - 9.5/10
Total - 8.1/10

The car that until, the Tivoli came along was a brilliant SUV, that does not mean that the Korando is poor, far from it, but the Tivoli is so good, it makes the rest of the range seem dated, it is extremely capable both on road and off, but off-road, the car excels, it managed the test track at Millbrook as though it was a flat road, there was no hesitation, no struggling and like its smaller sibling, Ignore this at your peril.

The automatic transmission copes with all you can throw at it, and in manual mode, you can control the gear changes with ease, if you happen to forget, you don't really notice the rising revs, as the car manages to hide the noise, which is another plus point, the Korando is a  car that should be on your list, like the Tivoli, why they do not sell far more, is anyone's guess, but for now, they are a very well kept secret, a secret that should be shared..

Ssangyong 1 - The Tivoli 1.6 Litre ELX 4x4 Auto, the car to define the brand for the next generation.

The Ssangyong brand is one of those brands that you know of, mainly because of the name, after all, it is not the easiest to pronounce if you are not told how to say it, but they make some great cars, and they are definitely ones that you should consider when buying your next car, to not do so, would be a mistake, they have a range of Off-Roaders and a barge like MPV, the range starts with the Tivoli at just shy of £13k, and works it way up from there.

This first post on the brand and it's products, will be about the SUV's and there off-road performance, other posts will appear over the coming week, but for now, we review the new Tivoli 4x4 on the Millbrook Proving Ground off-road facility.

The Tivoli is the car that will push the brand further along than any other in its UK history, it is just the right size, has a very competent Euro 6 range of engines and now it comes with a four Wheel drive system to aid the driver in inclement weather or off road driving, the CEO of Ssangyong UK, Paul Williams, is quoted as saying that "Tivoli is really helping to put Ssangyong on the map" and he is not wrong.

For a car that does not have huge ground clearance, it handled the challenging track with consummate ease, even climbing up a 25% incline, both forward and on it's side, it never failed, to get us round the course, we did manage to "clunk" the undercarriage a could of times, but that's par for the course in a low slung car like this.

I would say that the new 4x4 system will be better suited to dealing with bad winter weather, or muddy roads, but you must not forget that this car can cope with far more, flip the diff lock and move the auto level over to "M" and you get the opportunity to change gear, manually, on the lever, with a small switch, you can then go on your journey and not have to worry.

"We are delighted with the reception the car has received from our customers as well as the media, who recognise the real step-change that has taken place" is another quote from Paul Williams, and they back this up with a limitless five year warranty, They also cover brake pads and clutch friction plates for a year/12,500 miles, over and above many other brands.

But it does not stop there, they also cover your audio equipment (fitted) for five years, also limitless mileage, and the battery is covered for three years not two, like many other brands, so all the positives are stacking up in favour of the brand.

The engine in our test Tivoli is the potent 115ps e-XDi160 diesel engine, the engine produces the 115ps @ 3,400-4,000rpm max power with an impressive best in class 300Nm @1,500-2,500rpm for a powerful and sporty driving experience, this engine is mated to the AISIN 6-Speed Auto transmission, this is already a well proven auto box, but this is tuned to deliver a better fuel efficiency and minimise power loss, the gears are optimised to help transfer the power smoothly through all six changes, making for a more comfortable driving experience.

And the gear change is smooth, not in the DSG league, but for a car of this size, class and price point, it is up there with the best, drive the car smoothly and you will hardly notice any change up or down, however, give it some beans and you can tell it is an auto, with that familiar "blip" as it changes, but it does nothing to deter you as a driver, quite the opposite.

Giving the car some welly, it is plain to see that it has been geared for economy rather than performance, but it is no slouch, far from it, this little car can shift, and will happily keep up with fast traffic, and overtaking is easy too, it's no Porsche Macan, so you cant expect 0-60 in the sub 5 seconds, and Ssangyong have not released any figures as yet but a 123g/km Co2 is not bad for a Diesel 4x4, it can be better, the Ingenium range of diesels can go sub 100 in a 2.0L diesel, so, some work will no doubt be carried out over time to drop this.

Whilst testing the Tivoli we managed to get a great MPG, 12 Miles to the gallon, and we were reasonably impressed with that, considering that we were off-road and in first and second gear most of the time, at higher revs, but the manufacturer claimed figures are 60.1/51.4/67.3 (combined, Urban, Extra urban) for the manual, however the auto is significantly different, which was surprising, as most modern auto's are not that far from the manual, but the automatics are 47.9/36.2/57.7 (combined, Urban, Extra urban), so combined with a 47 litre fuel tank are 621.36 Miles (M) or 495.23 (A), not bad as long as you have not got a heavy foot.

The interior of the Tivoli is a huge jump forward, it looks clear, clean and crisp, the twin dials in front of the driver look modern and are very clear to understand, the central binnacle area with the Audio, Sat Nav etc, is also clear and easy to understand, and with few buttons, it is also very similar to the Korando, making it a design trait for the brand.

The seats are firm, but not over hard, the cosset nicely and hold you in position whilst on rather steep inclines, with two six footers in the car, and our navigator, we found that, even with the seat quite a way back, there was still a lot of leg room, so getting comfortable on a longer journey is a lot easier, especially for a child, head room too is very substantial, and you have no worries about banging your head like some deeply sloping roofs on a lot of new Crossovers.

Equipment levels on our car are good too, but as it is top of the range it is not surprising, but you get
  • Front and Rear parking sensors.
  • Tyre Pressure monitoring system (TPMS).
  • Space Saver Spare wheel.
  • 18" Diamond cut alloy wheels.
  • Front fog lights.
  • Rear spoiler.
  • Seven Airbags. 
  • Rear View Camera.
  • TomTom Navigation.
  • Rear heater duct.
  • Dual-Zone air con.
  • Electric Moving, heating and folding door mirrors.
  • Auto dipping rear view mirror.
  • Electronic cruise control.
  • Electric Windows, Front and rear.
  • Auto Wipers.
  • Auto Lighting.
  • Smart Instrument Cluster.
  • Smart Keyless Start.
  • Privacy Glass, Rear door, quarter and tailgate.
  • Leather Seats
  • Heated seats.
  • Steering wheel mounted controls.

Boot Space is not the best in the world, but it is not bad at 423 Litres, it will take a lot of the everyday items that you carry, put the seats down and you get a large load space, giving room for medium sized pieces of furniture, a couple of dogs (Husky sized) or just the junk you take to the tip on a Sunday morning.


Looks - 9/10
Fuel Consumption - 6/10
Equipment - 9/10
Off-Road Capability - 9.5/10
On-Road capability - 9/10
Co2 levels - 7/10
Interior Space - 10/10
Total - 8.5/10

Ignore this car at your peril, because if you do, you will be missing out on an awesome car, it does everything and more that you could want from a small SUV, comfort, all round vision, Equipment, lay out and looks.

The name may be a mouthful and some people might be put off by it, but you should not be, Ssangyong has been in the UK for a couple of decades now, and they have been growing since that first car, the Musso, and today they have a small and medium range of SUV's that can compete with the best, and in some sections, beat them.

We went with expectations, we came away impressed, would we own a car from this brand, yes, we would have the Tivoli, as that's what we would need, if we were in the market for a slightly bigger car, then yes the Korando would head that list too.

Friday, 4 December 2015

USA SALES NOVEMBER - VOLVO - 90.5% Growth in November & 18% growth YTD shows that Volvo is back.

Volvo Cars of North America, LLC, (VCNA) reported U.S. sales of 6,902 units, a 90.5 percent increase versus November 2014. Year-to-date sales are up 18 percent over the first eleven months of 2014.

The top seller for the month once again was the all-new XC90 luxury SUV with 2,236 units sold. The XC60 showed continued growth with 2,077 units sold, a 26.4 percent increase versus November 2014. The XC60 also represents the top seller year-to-date with 22,623 units sold, a 31.6 percent increase.
“We’ve achieved the highest monthly volume in the US market in eight years thanks in part to strong sales of the award-winning XC90 and the XC60,” said Lex Kerssemakers, President and CEO of Volvo Cars of North America. “The XC90 was just awarded the prestigious Motor Trend SUV of the Year award, and we are thrilled that consumers agree.” 
Following an $11 billion investment, the positive momentum has materialized with the first all-new model off the Scalable Product Architecture (SPA) platform, the XC90, with world-first safety technologies, a new design language, new powertrain architecture and a range of class-leading connectivity services.

USA SALES NOVEMBER - MERCEDES - The German Luxury brand sees a 4.0% growth YTD.

MBUSA posts 4.0% YTD increase moving toward record year
Despite the constraints, MBUSA president and CEO Stephen Cannon said, "November brought us enough volume to assure an all-time record year for MBUSA."
Mercedes-Benz Vans delivered 2,770 sales for the month of November, up 9.4% over November 2014, while smart recorded 662 units in November. On a year-to-date basis, Mercedes-Benz retails totaled 308,885, up 4.2%. Adding year-to-date sales of 25,843 for Vans and 6,815 for smart, MBUSA posted a grand total of 341,543 units through November, up 4.0%.
November sales for the Mercedes-Benz brand were led by the C-Class, GLE and E-Class model lines. The C-Class took the top spot with 7,239 units, followed by the newly introduced GLE-Class. The GLE finished second this month with 4,883 sales, a total of 14,353 units sold during its first four months on the market.
The brand's AMG high-performance models posted a 121% monthly sales increase to 2,186 units in November, while year-to-date sales climbed 43.9% to 14,649. Sales of Mercedes-Benz BlueTEC diesel models recorded 583 for the month and 10,436 year-to-date.
Separately, Mercedes-Benz Certified Pre-Owned (MBCPO) models delivered November sales of 9,406. On a year-to-date basis, MBCPO has sold 108,635 vehicles, an increase of 0.8% over the comparable period last year (107,800 vehicles).

The FIA held its latest World Motor Sport Council meeting in Paris and the F1 Calendar has been announced.

The FIA held its latest World Motor Sport Council meeting today in Paris.
During the Council meeting, the following decisions were taken:
FIA Formula One World Championship
The World Motor Sport Council approved, by a near unanimous number (just one vote against), a mandate for the FIA President, Jean Todt and the Representative of the Commercial Rights Holder, Bernie Ecclestone to make recommendations and decisions regarding a number of pressing issues in Formula One such as governance, Power Units and cost reduction. Mr Todt and Mr Ecclestone expressed their intention to establish conclusions on these matters by 31 January, 2016.

The World Motor Sport Council also approved a number of changes to the F1 Technical and Sporting Regulations.
The number of power unit tokens allowed for in-season development will be allocated as follows over the coming seasons:
-        2016 – 32
-        2017 – 25
-        2018 – 20
-        2019 – 15
Any new Power Unit manufacturer will be allocated 15 tokens in their first year, and 32 in their second.
The padded areas around the driver’s head have been increased in thickness for improved safety.
Changes have been approved by the World Motor Sport Council in regard to the way that tyres are used by teams in order to encourage differing race strategies in 2016. These include:
-        The tyre supplier will now provide three dry-weather compounds instead of two
-        Of the 13 sets of dry tyres available to each driver, the tyre supplier will choose two for the race (only one of which must be used in the race), and one set (the softest available) that may only be used in Q3. Each driver may then choose their remaining ten sets from the three available compounds
-        Unless intermediate or wet-weather tyres have been used, a driver must use at least two different specifications of dry-weather tyres – at least one of these must be the one chosen by the tyre supplier.
In the event of a Virtual Safety Car (VSC), DRS will now be re-enabled immediately after the VSC period. Furthermore, the VSC may also be used in practice sessions to reduce the amount of time lost during a stoppage.
Power Units homologated in previous seasons may now be re-homologated. Previously no manufacturer could supply more than one specification of PU. The World Motor Sport Council was also advised that the FIA had agreed for Ferrari to supply a fourth customer team with a 2015-specification Power Unit in 2016.
The maximum number of Championship events in a season has been increased to 21 (from 20). The calendar for the 2016 FIA Formula One World Championship has been confirmed:

20 MarchMelbourneAustralia
3 AprilBahrainBahrain
17 AprilShanghaiChina
1 MaySochiRussia
15 MayBarcelonaSpain
29 MayMonte CarloMonaco
12 JuneMontrealCanada
19 JuneBakuAzerbaijan*
3 JulySpielbergAustria
10 JulySilverstoneUnited Kingdom
24 JulyBudapestHungary
31 JulyHockenheimGermany
28 AugustSpa-FrancorchampsBelgium
4 SeptemberMonzaItaly
18 SeptemberSingaporeSingapore
2 OctoberSepangMalaysia
9 OctoberSuzukaJapan
23 OctoberAustinUSA**
30 OctoberMexico CityMexico
13 NovemberSao PaoloBrazil
27 NovemberAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates
*race start to be scheduled to avoid conflict with the conclusion of the 24 Hours of Le Mans
**subject to agreement with the promoter and the ASN
FIA Formula 2 Championship
The World Motor Sport Council gave a mandate to the President to formalise the contract between the FIA and the GP2 promoter for the establishment of the FIA Formula 2 Championship to complete the FIA’s single-seater pyramid from Karting to Formula One.
FIA Formula 3 European Championship
The 2016 FIA Formula 3 European Championship calendar was approved by the World Motor Sport Council:
3 AprilPaul RicardFrance
24 AprilHungaroringHungary
15 AprilPauFrance
22 MaySpielbergAustria
26 JuneNorisringGermany
17 JulyZandvoortNetherlands
30 JulySpa-FrancorchampsBelgium*
11 SeptemberNurburgringGermany
2 OctoberImolaItaly
16 OctoberHockenheimGermany
*subject to contractual agreement with the promoter
In order to further stabilise the current F3 market, keep costs under control and allow regional F3 projects to grow, the lifetime of the current F3 chassis is extended until the end of 2019. A safety update kit will be introduced in 2017 or 2018. Details of the safety updates carried out will be submitted to the June 2016 WMSC.
The World Motor Sport Council also accepted the Single-Seater Commission’s recommendation to emphasise the importance of developing Regional Formula 3 championships around the world. This is designed to promote the progression of young drivers into FIA championships once they are ready to graduate from their National F4 championships – at the end of the 2016 season, there will be 300 Formula 4 drivers and the focus for the FIA is to ensure that these drivers have somewhere to go.
FIA Formula E Championship
The World Motor Sport Council confirmed Mexico City on this season’s Formula E calendar, with an event scheduled for 12 March.
FIA World Endurance Championship
The World Motor Sport Council approved technical measures proposed by the Endurance Commission to make the FIA World Endurance Championship more appealing for new manufacturers to enter in the LMP1 category. These include regulations around ICEs, hybrid systems, aerodynamics, wind tunnel use and track test limitations.
The proposed calendar for the 2016 FIA World Endurance Championship was approved:
17 April6 Hours of SilverstoneGreat Britain
7 May6 Hours of SpaBelgium
18/19 June24 Hours of Le MansFrance
24 July6 Hours of NurburgringGermany
4 September6 Hours of Mexico CityMexico
17 September6 Hours of Circuit of the AmericasUSA
16 October6 Hours of FujiJapan
6 November6 Hours of ShanghaiChina
19 November6 Hours of BahrainBahrain
*subject to contractual agreement with the promoter
To continue the improvement of the safety of GT cars, the installation of racing nets homologated to FIA standard 8863-2013 will be mandatory in LMGTE cars to restrict the range of movement of a driver in the case of an accident. This measure has already been applied to GT3 cars.
FIA World Touring Car Championship
The World Motor Sport Council confirmed the introduction of the Manufacturers Against the Clock (MAC3) time-trial concept to the 2016 WTCC after qualifying at each race weekend that will contribute to the Manufacturers’ Championship. For this, each manufacturer will nominate three cars to participate in a two-lap “qualifying” run – the time will be stopped when the last car has crossed the finish line. Drivers participating in MAC3 will receive an extra set of tyres for the session.
The WTCC’s partial reverse grid race will now be Race 1 of the weekend from 2016 (it had been the second final race).
The provisional 2016 World Touring Car Championship calendar was approved by the World Motor Sport Council: 
20 MarchTBDTBD
3 AprilPaul RicardFrance
17 AprilSlovakiaringSlovakia
24 AprilHungaroringHungary
8 MayMarrakechMorocco
29 MayNordschleifeGermany
12 JuneVila RealPortugal
7 AugustTermas de Rio HondoArgentina
4 SeptemberMotegiJapan
25 SeptemberShanghaiChina
6 NovemberBuriramThailand
25 NovemberLosailQatar
CIK-FIA Karting
The World Motor Sport Council confirmed the introduction of single-cylinder engines in the Superkart category for Division 1 to reduce costs for competitors.
The establishment of a CIK-FIA Endurance Championship was approved for 2016, comprising a 24-hour race on 17-18 September at Le Mans, organised by the ACO.
FIA World Rally Championship
From 2016, WRC Organisers will be obliged to undertake the environmental certification process provided by the FIA before the event visa is delivered.
The 2016 WRC calendar was also confirmed:
22-24 JanuaryMonte Carlo
12-14 FebruarySweden
4-6 MarchMexico
22-24 AprilArgentina
20-22 MayPortugal
10-12 JuneItaly
1-3 JulyPoland
29-31 JulyFinland
19-21 AugustGermany
9-11 SeptemberChina
30 September – 2 OctoberFrance
14-16 OctoberSpain
28-30 OctoberGreat Britain
18-20 NovemberAustralia
FIA World Rallycross Championship
The World Motor Sport Council approved the 2016 FIA World Rallycross Championship calendar:
16-17 AprilMontalegrePortugal
7-8 MayHockenheimGermany
14-15 MayMettetBelgium
28-29 MayLydden HillGreat Britain
11-12 JuneHellNorway
2-3 JulyHoljesSweden
6-7 AugustTrois-RivieresCanada
3-4 SeptemberLoheacFrance
17-18 SeptemberBarcelonaSpain
1-2 OctoberRigaLatvia
15-16 OctoberEsteringGermany
26-27 OctoberRosarioArgentina
FIA European Rallycross Championship competitors will now be separated from World RX drivers in Supercar qualifying heats.
FIA Rally Commission
The World Motor Sport Council approved the implementation of a one-hour penalty for any missed stage except for super special stages, where a seven-minute penalty will apply. This is to ensure that competitors running in all stages will always be classified of those that miss a stage.
The format of the FIA European Rally Trophy (ERT) has been amended with the main category being for R5/S2000 cars, ERT 2 for NR4 cars, ERT 3 for two-wheel drive cars, and a Junior Trophy for drivers born on or after 1 January 1989. The ERT will be organised in eight European area trophy competitions. The three highest scoring competitors in each area, and category, will compete in a Final that will be hosted by a different country each year. The winners of the Trophy Finals will be the winners of their respective ERT category.
FIA Hill Climb Commission
All FIA-sanctioned Hill Climb Championships have been reviewed and restructured, while the date for the FIA Hill Climb Masters was confirmed as 8-9 October, 2016 at Sternberk in the Czech Republic.
FIA Safety Commission
A new FIA Safety Harnesses Standard was approved which offers several improvements in relation to the current FIA Standard. The new harnesses will give protection to drivers during much severe crashes. The crash pulse severity is increased from 30 g to more than 60 g. The new standard will be implemented as from 1.1.2017 in Formula One, WEC, WRC and WTCC and then cascade down to all the FIA championships.
The World Motor Sport Council also approved the creation of a specification for extractable seats to be used in open cockpit cars. These are already used to some degree, however there are some cases where the seats do not meet the FIA specification.
FIA Drivers’ Commission
Emerson Fittipaldi, President of the Drivers’ Commission and two-time FIA Formula One World Champion has stepped down from the presidency to the position of Vice-President.
Nine-time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner, Tom Kristensen will assume the role of President of the FIA Drivers’ Commission.
FIA European Drag Racing Championship
The World Motor Sport Council approved the addition of the final round of the championship in Malta at the Malta Drag Raceway from 30 September to 2 October.
FIA Hall of Fame
The World Motor Sport Council approved the establishment of an FIA Hall of Fame, which will be launched at the 2016 FIA Sport Conference next June.